The PSLREB is an independent quasi-judicial statutory tribunal established by the Public Service Labour Relations and Employment Board Act (PSLREBA), which came into force on November 1, 2014. The PSLREB is responsible for administering the collective bargaining and grievance adjudication systems in the federal public service and in Parliament. It is also responsible for the resolution of staffing complaints related to internal appointments and layoffs in the federal public service. It can also receive complaints about appointments that were made to comply with an order in a previous PSLREB decision, as well as revocations of internal appointments. The PSLREB is also responsible for dealing with pay equity complaints filed by, or on behalf of, groups of employees pursuant to the Canadian Human Rights Act.

The PSLREB is the creation of a merger of the Public Service Labour Relations Board (PSLRB) and the Public Service Staffing Tribunal (PSST). The PSLREB deals with matters that were previously dealt with by those former tribunals under the Public Service Labour Relations Act and the Public Service Employment Act, respectively.